Gichd
Publication date
June 2011

Guide to

Gender and

Development

 

Contents

Introduction

About the Guide

What is “Gender and Development”?

AusAID’s Gender and Development Policy

What is the Guide?

• Aim of the Guide

• What the Guide does and does not do

• Why use the Guide

How to use the Guide

• Who should use the Guide

• Structure of the Guide

• When to use the Guide

Who to consult for advice

Terms and Definitions

 

5

6

7

8

 

9

 

12

13

 

General gender questions

• Key areas of concern

• Implementing Australia’s Gender and Development Policy

Country and Sectoral Programming

Identification and Preparation

Implementation and Monitoring

Evaluation

 

15

16

17

19

23

27

 

Sectoral gender questions

Agriculture

Economic Reporting

Education

Environment

Health and Population

Humanitarian Assistance

Human Rights

Infrastructure

Institutional Strengthening

Micro-Enterprise Development

Training

 

31

37

43

47

53

59

65

71

75

79

85

 

Annexes

Annex 1: References and Resources

Annex 2: Feedback Form

Note: This document is available on AusAID’s web site. www.ausaid.gov.au

 

89

95

 

About the Guide

The Guide has been prepared to facilitate gender planning in AusAID development programs. It is intended to be

a tool to help Activity Managers and contractors effectively implement AusAID’s Gender and Development Policy.

Other donor countries use similar lists of questions, checklists and guidelines in their programs, and these have

provided the basis for developing this Guide. The checklists consulted include those for the Canadian, Finnish and

Dutch International Development Agencies in addition to those for the European Commission and INSTRAW

(the United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women).

AusAID Activity Managers, working on bilateral and multilateral programs, were consulted during the formulation

of the Guide to provide input and feedback.

Although the questions included in the Guide are based on significant lessons learned over the years, circumstances

are continually changing and experience growing. Users of the Guide are therefore encouraged to share their experiences and suggestions with the Social Sector and Gender Section of AusAID (SSG). A Feedback Form is

provided at the end of the Guide for this purpose.

 

What is “Gender and Development”?

Since the mid 1980s there has been a growing consensus that sustainable development requires an understanding of

both women’s and men’s roles and responsibilities within the community and their relations to each other. This has

come to be known as the Gender and Development (GAD) approach. Improving the status of women is no longer

seen as just a women’s issue, but as a goal that requires the active participation of both men and women.

The Gender and Development approach is based on the premise that development cooperation programs cannot

succeed or the impact be sustained if the people affected do not support them. The role of gender analysis is to

examine ways in which men’s and women’s differing roles, responsibilities, resources and priorities may affect their

project participation. Through the collection of sex disaggregated data, it identifies how development programs

may impact differently on women and men. Gender analysis , an essential part of social analysis, considers the

social, economic, political and cultural relationships between men and women, and how these will be affected by

and influence development activities.

Mainstreaming women’s needs and perspectives into all activities is one of the primary objectives of GAD.

Mainstreaming acknowledges that all development operations have a gender impact and do not automatically

benefit men and women equally. A project which mainstreams gender considers women’s and men’s needs first at

the country program level, and then at each stage of the project cycle. It ensures that women and men equally participate in every aspect of the project, both as beneficiaries and decision makers.

Gender and Development moves away from the practice of adding “women only” components to projects and

programs, which characterised the “Women in Development” approach. However, separate programs, projects and

components for women will continue to need support, since these are often necessary to ensure that women’s practical needs are met. Separate programming for women may also assist with mainstreaming women’s interests, or be

essential for advancing their status and promoting their human rights.

 

AusAID’s gender and development policy

Australia’s Goal

Australia’s aid program aims to promote equal opportunities for women and men as participants and bene ficiaries of development.

 

Australia’s Objectives

• To improve women’s access to education and health care.

• To improve women’s access to economic resources.

• To promote women’s participation and leadership in decision making at all levels.

• To promote the human rights of women and assist efforts to eliminate discrimination against women.

• To incorporate a gender perspective in Australia’s aid activities.

 

Underlying Principles

The Australian aid program recognises that sustainable development can only be achieved with the active participation of all members of the community.

Gender equality is an integral part of universal human rights and an important development goal in itself.

Providing equal rights and access to resources and opportunities to women is crucial to the goal of reducing poverty,

illiteracy and disease.

Goals and priorities for tackling gender equity will vary from country to country and should be sensitive to the

specific needs and priorities of our developing country partners.

 

What is the Guide?

Aim of the Guide....

The Guide is a practical guide to assist AusAID Activity Managers and contractors to fully consider how

women and men will participate in and benefit from development activities, as the Gender and

Development policy requires. It contains a series of questions to determine to what extent women and men

will be able to participate in development programs, and to assess the potential impact on the roles and

relationships between men and women.

 

What the Guide does and does not do....

The Guide does not promise instant solutions to effectively integrating a gender perspective into every development activity, nor is it designed to be a definitive and exhaustive guideline for gender analysis. Rather, it functions

as a memory aid to check that no aspect of a project will overlook women’s and men’s needs and concerns. It is not

expected that every question in the Guide will be applicable for each project, nor that exhaustive answers can be

provided for every question.

In almost all cases, users of the Guide will need to formulate additional questions, specific to the particular project

design, its implementation, and its social, cultural, economic, political and institutional context. The project cycle

and sectoral questions provided in the Guide are designed as a resource to assist project planners and implementors

to undertake gender analysis. The Guide cannot provide strategies on how to overcome specific gender issues in a

project. However, asking and answering the questions included here can be a first essential step towards devising

appropriate project strategies, and can also assist with assessing the likely effectiveness of such strategies.

A list of general references and resources on each sector is annexed to the Guide. Many of these resources summarise lessons learned and provide a guide to key appraisal questions and implementation strategies.

 

Why use the Guide....

Project success and the effective use of development resources are major incentives for using the Guide. There is

much evidence that weaknesses in initial planning stages often result either in a failure of projects to reach women

or a negative impact on them (INSTRAW 1987: 2). For this reason, sectoral questions focus on project identification and preparation. Experience and evidence also highlight the importance of monitoring gender and other social

impacts throughout project implementation.

Some of the consequences of overlooking women in development planning can include: undermining women’s

access to resources; marginalising women’s labour; a negative impact on women’s health and nutrition; increasing

the daily burden of women’s work; and an adverse impact on men’s and women’s social relations (Hunt 1997: 30).

The Guide is based on the premise that successful and sustainable development activities require the support and

participation of both men and women. Its basis is that both men’s and women’s roles, responsibilities, needs, access

to resources and decision making and the social relations between men and women are all crucial elements to

consider in project planning, implementation and evaluation. Moreover, focusing on men’s roles, attitudes and

behaviour is an important element in tackling some of the causes of women’s low status and particular development

problems. For example, in the area of reproductive health, it is evident that an exclusive focus on women is insufficient when men may have control of resources and decision making (DAC 1995: 3).

 

How to use the Guide

Who should use the Guide....

• AusAID Activity Managers who are planning, appraising, managing or reviewing development activities.

• AusAID Officers at Posts who are assessing proposals and monitoring project implementation.

• Consultants and experts, team leaders and team members and NGOs who are assigned to undertake project

design, implementation or review.

 

Structure of the Guide....

The Guide has two sections:

• a set of general questions, applicable to every project; and

• sectoral questions, with more detailed questions for particular sectors.

The questions provide a basic framework to conduct gender analysis. However, the questions are by no means

exhaustive, and it is not expected that it will always be possible to answer every question.

A glossary has been provided at the end of this Introduction to assist with frequently used concepts and terms.

The Guide focuses on gender and gender relations rather than specifically on women. Nevertheless, users will

notice that some questions are primarily related to women. Given the disadvantaged position and lower status of

women, promotion of gender equality often requires a specific focus on women’s needs, interests and perspectives.

 

When to use the Guide....

Australia’s Gender and Development policy highlights the need to incorporate a gender perspective into all

Australia’s aid activities, through the planning, preparation, and management of projects. To respond adequately to

gender issues in any project, it is vitally important that consideration begins at the initial screening stage and continues throughout the whole project cycle.

Consultations with AusAID Activity Managers have highlighted the key documents and tasks where the gender

Guide will be most useful to both AusAID officers and contractors:

• Country Strategy Formulation, in order to ensure that the gender and development policy and approaches are

addressed.

• Terms of Reference, in order to specify gender issues and indicate that the team needs to be adequately skilled

and resourced to provide strategies to address these issues

• Contract (Scope of Services), in order to ensure that contractors give due consideration to gender

• Briefing Contractors, to ensure that they are aware of AusAID’s policy and its implications for project design,

implementation and monitoring

• Project Design Document, in order to identify gender issues and appropriate strategies to ensure that men and

women participate and benefit equally, and to provide sufficient gender indicators for milestones and monitoring

• Annual Plans, in order to monitor strategies, the progress towards targets and gender impacts, and to review

strategies and targets

• Project Coordinating Meetings, to review project design strategies and resource needs in the light of progress

towards milestones and gender impacts

• Project and Program Evaluations and Reviews , to assess the progress, efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability of particular projects and programs, including from a gender perspective.

 

I ncorporating gender perspectives can only be effectively achieved if AusAID officers and contractors work

together. The Guide is also designed to assist contractors to meet their responsibilities through the project cycle.

 

Through all stages of the project cycle, contractors are expected to:

• know AusAID’s Gender and Development policy goals and objectives, and understand the rationale and

approach behind them

• be able to advocate effectively and communicate AusAID’s Gender and Development policy where necessary

• understand how AusAID’s policy goal and objectives should be applied through each phase of the project cycle,

and to any project mission or task for which they are responsible

• ensure that gender issues are adequately covered for each area of project preparation, design, implementation or

monitoring for which they are responsible, including in project documents and reports, including completion

reports

• if gender issues have not been adequately addressed at any stage, raise this with team leaders or AusAID staff as

appropriate, and make appropriate recommendations for consideration by AusAID

 

Who to consult for advice

The Social Sector and Gender Section (SSG) can be consulted for advice when using the Guide. If the Guide

identifies problematical areas for gender in a project, SSG can be a contact point for AusAID officers. SSG can

provide information on gender analysis and advise Activity Managers and contractors where to seek technical

expertise.

Technical expertise can usually be drawn from the Gender and Development period contracts available in SSG or

Program Support Services.

AusAID Activity Managers, posted officers and Non-Government Organisations (NGOs) may be able to identify

in-country experts who can provide “on the ground” advice.

Other AusAID officers, who either have been or are involved in similar sectoral programs, can share cross-regional

experience.

A formal Peer Gr oup may be appointed to advise and support the Activity Manager through activity preparation

and implementation. Peer groups may include specialists from inside or outside the Agency.

Gender analysis training courses can be organised through SSG and the Personnel Development Section to

provide AusAID officers with skills for gender analysis. Contractors may also utilise Australian or in-country expertise to undertake gender awareness and gender analysis training.

The SSG section has a series of box files containing r esour ce material for more detailed information on gender

issues in specific sectors and countries.

Resour ce material is also available from AusAID Library, which has regularly updated resource lists of select

holdings (journal articles and books) on Women in Development and Gender and Development.

Annex 1 of this Guide provides a list of general references and sector-specific resource material which are available

from SSG and/or AusAID Library.

 

Terms & definitions

Gender Roles and Responsibilities

Gender refers to the socially constructed roles and relationships between women and men. These are learned,

change over time, and vary within and between countries and cultures according to social, religious, historical and

economic factors. Gender contrasts with sex, which describes a set of biological differences between men and

women. Gender roles and responsibilities affect women’s and men’s ability and incentive to participate in development activities, and lead to different project impacts for men and women.

 

Gender Analysis

Gender analysis is the process of considering the impact that a development program or project may have on

women/girls and men/boys, and on the economic and social relationships between them. Key issues for analysis

include: the gender division of labour; access to and control over resources and the distribution of benefits; social,

economic and environmental factors which influence all of the above; and decision making capacity. Gender

analysis is a specific form of social analysis which requires the collection of sex disaggregated data. Incorporating a

gender perspective into aid activities involves applying gender analysis throughout the project cycle.

 

Gender and Development (GAD)

This approach acknowledges that to address women’s concerns and needs, development assistance must take

account of both women’s and men’s roles and responsibilities within the community and their relationship to each

other. It requires the active participation of men as well as women in order to raise the status of women and bring

about sustainable development. The GAD approach is both strategic and practical, and starts with an examination

of issues of power, decision making, work allocation and ownership and control of resources.

 

Gender Division of Labour

Both women and men have multiple work roles. These include: production, reproduction, essential household and

community services, and community management and political activities.

• Productive Role

Productive activities include all tasks which contribute to the income and economic welfare and advancement

of the household and community. Both women and men perform a range of productive roles. Women’s productive roles can include cash and subsistence farming (whether or not they control any income from their labour),

fishing, foraging in forests, care of livestock, marketing and transporting, food processing for sale, cottage or

home-based industries (micro-enterprises), and waged/formal sector employment.

• Reproductive Role

Reproductive activities are those activities carried out to reproduce and care for the household. Responsibility

for contraception and decision making about reproduction may be in the hands of women or men, depending on

the cultural context. Child rearing is generally primarily women’s responsibility, although in most societies men

also play some role. Women’s other reproductive roles include pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding.

• Household and Community Services

Essential household and community services are those which must be carried out daily to meet the family’s and

community’s basic needs, such as fuel and water collection, provision of shelter and clothing, cleaning, education, health care, care of the elderly and food processing and preparation. While females carry major

responsibility for these services in most societies, men and boys generally also undertake some of these tasks.

• Community Management and Political Activities

This refers to the management and conservation of resources for collective community consumption (such as

fuel, forests and water), as well as participation in cultural and religious ceremonies, formal and informal political activities, and involvement in development organisations, such as non-government organisations or

women’s groups. In community affairs, men in many societies are often more likely to predominate at regional

and national political levels. However, women also have their own formal and informal structures for involvement in community affairs and decision making at a village or neighbourhood level, and increasingly also at

regional and national levels through women’s organisations and networks.

 

Gender Equality

Gender equality refers to equal opportunities and outcomes for women and men. This involves the removal of discrimination and structural inequalities in access to resources, opportunities and services, and the promotion of equal

rights. Equality does not mean that women should be the same as men. Promoting equality (the goal of Australia’s

GAD policy) recognises that men and women have different roles and needs, and takes these into account in development planning and programming.

 

Gender Planning

This is a type of development planning which aims to promote gender equality. The concepts of practical gender

needs and strategic gender interests assist with analysing the impact of development objectives and activities.

 

Practical Gender Needs

Practical gender needs are the concrete and practical needs women and men have for survival and economic

advancement, which do not challenge the existing sexual division of labour, legal inequalities, or other aspects of

discrimination due to cultural and social practices. Meeting practical gender needs in development programs may

include the provision of services such as clean water, shelter and health care, as well as income generating opportunities. If women are involved in decision making and training in new areas, strategic interests may also be addressed

through such practical projects (see definition of strategic gender interests below).

 

Sex Disaggregated Data

This refers to the differentiation by sex of statistical and other data. This is a basic requirement of good practice in

development programming, without which it is difficult or impossible to determine the gender impacts of development activities.

 

Strategic Gender Interests

Strategic gender interests refer to the relative status of women to men. They seek to bring about greater equality

between men and women, and to eliminate various forms of sexual discrimination. Strategic interests may include

legal rights, protection from domestic violence, increased decision making and increasing women’s control over

their bodies. Practical needs and strategic interests are complementary. For example, programs that only target

practical needs may not be sustainable unless strategic interests are also taken into account.

 

Women in Development (WID)

This approach promotes women’s integration in development efforts. The focus is mainly on women whereas the

GAD approach concentrates on both men’s and women’s roles and responsibilities.

 

General gender questions

Key Areas of Concern

Gender Division of Labour

Most societies allocate different roles, responsibilities, and activities to women and men. Although the nature of the

work varies greatly between and within countries and cultures, there are some general patterns in the social and

economic roles of men and women. Both men and women are involved in productive, reproductive,

household/community service and community management and political activities. The collection of sex disaggregated data about the gender division of labour is an essential first step in gender analysis, including who does what,

where and when the work is done, and how long it takes. Age and socio-economic groupings also need to be considered. The general patterns noted below should only be seen as a starting point for direct observation and

verification.

In their productive capacity, women generally provide for the household’s daily consumption with activities such as

subsistence farming, fishing, foraging in the forests and care of livestock. Women also contribute to household

income through trading surplus production from subsistence and cash cropping, food processing, other micro-enterprises and participation in the informal and formal labour force. Women’s reproductive role is significant for their

economic and social roles. Pregnancy, childbirth, breast-feeding and child rearing are interlinked with women’s

social status, health status and needs and participation in economic activity. Essential household and community

services are generally the responsibility of women, including care of the elderly and sick, provision of clothing and

shelter, and household work such as food processing and preparation, cleaning and laundry. In their community

management and political roles, women may be involved formally or informally in local development and political

organisations, and may have responsibilities to contribute to cultural, religious and other social activities. With

these multiple roles, poor women often have little or no spare time for new development activities, unless measures

are taken to reduce their existing workload.

 

Access and Control of Resources and Benefits

Access to productive resources, control over these resources and who benefits from the use of the resources are all

significant factors for determining gender impacts of development activities. Reduced access to productive

resources can strongly inhibit women’s and men’s capacity to provide for daily consumption or earn an income.

Resources may include land, forests, waterways, foreshores, equipment, labour, productive inputs, capital/credit and

education/training. For example, when new technology is introduced, it is important to consider the impact that it

may have on both men’s and women’s tasks and access to other resources, as well as who is likely to have control

over or access to any income earned.

Research suggests that women are more likely to devote time to new development activities when they have some

control over the income and other benefits generated (Hunt 1997: 27). Men’s and women’s responsibilities and priorities for spending income also vary between and within countries. In general, women tend to spend more of their

income on family maintenance, household nutrition, education and basic welfare (UN 1995: 129; World Bank

1990: 37).

 

Factors and Trends

Women’s and men’s roles and responsibilities in a society or culture are dynamic and change over time. Social,

cultural, religious, economic, political and legal factors and trends all have a complex and profound influence on

gender roles and responsibilities. Many of these factors can constrain women’s participation in development activities. For example, cultural or religious factors may restrict women’s and girl’s access to services or prevent them from

attending mixed training classes.

Changing attitudes, economic circumstances and other trends may also provide opportunities for improving women’s

social, economic and legal status. Analysing these factors may assist planners to identify areas where development

activities can address both women’s practical needs and strategic interests to redress current inequalities in the

gender division of labour, and in women’s access to and ownership of productive resources (Hunt 1997: 38).

 

Implementing Australia’s Gender and Development Policy

Promoting equal opportunities for women and men

The goal of Australia’s Gender and Development policy is to promote equal opportunities for women and men as

participants and beneficiaries of development. One of the key objectives of the policy is to promote women’s participation and leadership in decision making at all levels. All policy objectives are directly concerned with raising

the status of women. Meeting these policy aims requires close attention to:

• the formulation of project objectives and activities (and their relationship to women’s practical needs and

strategic interests in the three key areas of concern noted above);

• project consultation and participation strategies (including how women and men can gain access to and control

over project resources).

 

Incorporating a gender perspective into aid activities

Another of Australia’s key policy objectives is to incorporate a gender perspective into the development and implementation of policies, programs and projects. International experience indicates that undertaking gender analysis

during project preparation does not guarantee that gender perspectives will be incorporated during implementation.

This likelihood is improved if:

• key constraints to women’s and men’s participation are identified during project preparation for all project components;

• project strategies are identified to overcome constraints to participation, including the setting of quantitative

and qualitative targets against which progress can be monitored, and the dedication of project resources to

ensure that strategies will be implemented;

• gender-sensitive monitoring indicators and processes are devised to monitor both the impact of the project on

women and men and the relationships between them, and the progress towards targets for involving women

(sex disaggregated data should be collected throughout the project cycle);

• counterpart institutional capacity for implementing gender-sensitive projects is assessed and appropriate actions

taken to strengthen this capacity.

 

Indicators of success

The following indicators would suggest that key areas of concern have been properly considered, that appropriate

steps have been taken to promote gender equality, and that gender perspectives have been adequately incorporated

into the project cycle:

• project documents integrate gender considerations and gender and social analyses into mainstream project

activities, as well as separate project activities for women or men if these are appropriate;

• program and project documents have sex disaggregated data;

• strategies to involve and benefit women are well-resourced and fully costed in project design and project

implementation;

• women’s status and decision making power is advanced as a result of project activities;

• men and women participate equally in project planning, implementation and monitoring;

• women and men benefit equally from project interventions.

 

Country & sectoral programming

• These questions are to be used as a guide only. It is not expected that every question will be relevant to all activities,

countries or sectors.

• These questions are designed to assist AusAID Activity Managers to incorporate a gender perspective into country and

sectoral programming.

 

Key Guiding Questions

Does the Recipient Government (RG)

have a women’s policy, statement or

plan of action?

 

Auxiliary Guiding Questions

• What is the RG’s strategy for incorporating gender issues

into various sectors?

• What commitments did the RG make to gender equality

during the Fourth World Conference on Women

(Beijing, September 1995)?

• What opportunities exist to meet practical gender needs and

strategic gender interests, to advance women’s status?

• Have high level consultations addressed the most effective means

of incorporating gender perspectives into current country and

sectoral programming?

 

What are the major institutions and

NGOs which are dedicated to addressing

social and gender issues in the country?

 

• Are there “national women’s machineries” tasked with addressing

gender issues and setting priorities for action? (eg. a Ministry of

Women’s Affairs, or departments/bureaux located in

sectoral ministries)

• What other institutions and NGOs are dedicated to promoting

gender equality?

• What mandate do these agencies have?

• What are the institutional strengths and weaknesses of these

agencies? (eg. do they have gender training, advocacy, gender

analysis, gender planning or implementation capacity and

experience that Australian project planners and implementors

may draw upon)

• How can these agencies be strengthened or utilised in AusAID

planning and programming to effectively address gender and

development objectives?

• How can Australian development assistance most effectively

strengthen women’s participation in leadership and decision

making in the country or sector?

 

Which counterpart agencies are most

likely to be receptive to Australia’s policy

on gender and development?

 

• Which counterpart agencies will be most receptive to

considering gender issues in project planning and

implementation? (which agencies will be open to assistance with

strengthening capacity in this area)

• What relationship does the national women’s machinery have to

counterpart agencies which may receive Australian development

assistance in future?

 

• What is the likelihood that these counterparts will have the

capacity and commitment to ensure that men and women

participate equally in project planning and implementation?

• What lessons have been learned from other projects with these

counterparts?

How will the country or sector program

meet Australia’s Gender and Development

policy goal and objectives?

 

• What are the key social indicators in the country or sector?

• Does the country/sector strategy identify disadvantaged and

marginalised groups? (who are the poor, and where do they live)

• Is all data in country and sectoral program documents

disaggregated by sex?

• What priority is given to Gender and Development policy

objectives in setting country and sector priorities?

• How can women’s practical gender needs and strategic gender

interests be best addressed in the country program or sector?

• Which of Australia’s GAD policy objectives are explicitly

addressed in the country or sector? (improving access to education

and health care, improving access to economic resources, promoting

participation and leadership, promoting the human rights of women

and assisting efforts to eliminate discrimination)

 

What are the major obstacles and

opportunities for promoting equal

opportunities and benefits for women in

each major sector of assistance?

 

• What are men’s and women’s greatest needs in the sector?

• What is the likelihood that projects in this sector will provide

equal opportunities and benefits to women and men?

• What are the greatest obstacles to men’s and women’s

participation in the sector?

• What are the greatest constraints to providing equal benefits to

men and women in the sector?

• Have sectoral-level strategies been identified and evaluated for

addressing these obstacles and constraints?

• How can women’s practical gender needs and strategic interests be

best addressed in this sector?

• What lessons have been learned from other projects in this sector?

 

Key documents and tasks

Ensure that gender perspectives are incorporated into:

• Country strategy formulation

• Country strategy revision

• Country strategy paper

 

 

Sector studies

Programming missions

High level consultations

 

Identification & preparation

• These questions are to be used as a guide only. It is not expected that every question will be relevant to all

activities.

• The questions are designed to assist AusAID Activity Managers with their assessment and appraisal of

development activities.

• The questions are also designed to assist contractors to incorporate gender perspectives into activity preparation

and design.

 

Key Guiding Questions

Do project objectives explicitly refer to

women and men?

 

Auxiliary Guiding Questions

• Are benefits for women and men stated in the project objectives?

• Are women included in the target group?

• Have both women’s and men’s needs in the project sector

been considered?

• Have women’s practical gender needs and strategic gender

interests been considered? (defined by women themselves)

• Does the project build on women’s and men’s strengths and skills

in the sector?

 

Do project documents describe project

consultation and participation strategies?

 

• Have local women and women’s networks been consulted?

• Will women and men be involved in decision making

on the project?

• Have constraints to women’s and men’s participation in the

project been identified?

• Have strategies been identified to address these constraints?

• Have targets been set for women’s and men’s participation and

benefits?

 

Has consideration been given to the

current gender division of labour?

 

• Has sex disaggregated data been collected on the gender

division of labour and responsibilities? (all aspects of women’s and

men’s work affected or targeted by project activities)

• Does this data differentiate between socio-economic or ethnic

groups affected or targeted by the project?

• Have women’s and men’s productive, reproductive, household/

community service and community management/politics roles all

been considered?

• Have girl’s and boy’s tasks and responsibilities also been

considered?

• Is women’s participation possible given the existing allocation of

time between tasks? (their current workloads)

 

• Has consideration been given to when and where the project

activity will be done? (how will this affect the current division of

labour, and how will it constrain or facilitate women’s and men’s

involvement)

• Has consideration been given to the duration of project activities?

(how will this constrain or facilitate women’s and men’s

involvement)

• Is the project suited to women’s activities? (are project inputs

targeting both men’s and women’s activities)

Has consideration been given to who has

access to and control of productive

resources, including project resources?

(eg. land, forests, waterways, foreshores,

markets, energy/fuel, equipment,

technology, capital/credit and

education/training)

 

• Will project activities affect women’s or men’s access to and

control of resources? (eg. loss of land, reduced access to markets)

• Will new technologies benefit both women and men?

• Will women and men be informed about the project and any

training opportunities offered?

• Will training be equally available to women and men to ensure

absorption of new technology and ideas? (have strategies been

identified to ensure this)

• Have constraints and strategies been identified to ensure that poor

women and men can access other project resources?

• Are project organisations equally accessible to women and men?

(eg. water user groups, credit and farmer groups)

• Is it necessary to have separate activities or components for

women to ensure that their needs and interests are not

marginalised? (to ensure that women have equal access to project

resources)

 

Have the beneficiaries of the project been

identified?

 

• Who will control the benefits from project activities?

(such as income earned, food produced or assets created)

• Who will benefit from any income earned?

• Will groups of men or women be disadvantaged by the project?

(have remedial measure been taken)

 

Has consideration been given to how

social, cultural, religious, economic,

political and environmental factors will

influence women’s and men’s

participation?

 

• Has consideration been given to how the project might influence

these factors, either positively or negatively?

• Are there legal and institutional barriers to women’s participation?

• Are there measures which attempt to remove any constraints to

women’s participation? (eg. travel to the project site is made safer

for women, separate dormitory facilities for men and women,

separate classes for women)

 

Does the Recipient Government

counterpart agency have the capacity to

implement gender-sensitive projects?

 

• Has capacity in this area been assessed?

• Has a sex disaggregated employment profile of the counterpart

agency been undertaken?

• Have strategies been identified to strengthen counterpart gender

analysis, gender planning and implementation capacity, and have

these strategies been costed?

• Does the project Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) refer to

the need for men and women to participate equally in planning

and implementation, and to have equal access to project benefits?

 

How will the activity affect women’s

social status, including their role as

decision makers?

 

• What practical needs and strategic interests of women are

addressed in the project?

• How will the project affect existing gender relations?

• Will a change in women’s status adversely affect relationships

between women and men?

• Has consideration been given to ways to encourage men, and the

community, to be supportive of any improvement in women’s

status? (such as gender-sensitive training)

 

Are arrangements in place to monitor

gender impacts (the impact of the project

on women and men, and on the

relationships between them)?

 

• Will there be ongoing consultation with women and men

directly or indirectly affected by the project?

• Are there indicators and milestones to measure progress in

achieving the targets set for women? (targets for women’s

participation and the distribution of project benefits)

• Are these milestones in the contract’s scope of services?

• Will sex disaggregated data be collected to monitor gender

impacts? (eg. impacts on the gender division of labour and

workloads, on access to resources, and on other aspects of

women’s status)

• Are mechanisms in place to allow for changes in project design, to

address issues which may arise from the inclusion of women in the

project? (eg. issues which may arise through consultation and

participation processes)

 

Are project resources adequate to deliver

services and opportunities to women

and men?

 

• Are strategies to promote women’s participation and equal access

to benefits adequately resourced in the budget?

• Are targets and strategies relating to women’s and men’s

participation and benefits included in workplans/activity

schedules, and project logframes?

• Is responsibility for gender issues included in the terms of

reference for key short-term and long-term advisers and team

leaders?

• Is gender expertise being utilised throughout the project?

 

Key documents and tasks

Ensure that gender perspectives are incorporated into:

 

Activity Preparation Briefs

Peer group meetings

Terms of Reference

Contract

Briefing with team members

Technical Assessment Panel (TAP)

 

 

Pre-feasibility report

Feasibility Report

Project Design Document

Assessment Report

Appraisal report

Decision meetings

 

Implementation & monitoring

• These questions are to be used as a guide only. It is not expected that every question will be relevant to all

activities.

• The questions are designed to assist AusAID Activity Managers with their management and monitoring of development

activities.

• The questions are also designed to assist contractors to incorporate gender perspectives into activity implementation and

monitoring.

 

Key Guiding Questions

Have strategies and targets for promoting

equal opportunities and benefits been

identified in the project design?

 

Auxiliary Guiding Questions

• Do strategies and targets address practical gender needs

of women as well as strategic interests?

• Are the strategies being implemented? (for promoting equal

participation and benefits)

• Are adequate project resources in place to achieve gender objectives?

• Are the targets for including women and men being achieved?

 

Are adequate gender-sensitive monitoring

mechanisms in place and operational?

 

• Has sex disaggregated data been collected on women’s and

men’s participation on a routine basis?

• Do performance indicators measure women’s and men’s access to

project resources, services and benefits?

• Are women and men involved in data collection and assessment?

(is this a participatory process)

• Do project staff assigned to monitoring have gender expertise and

sensitivity?

 

Are both men and women participating

in the project activities?

 

• Has sex disaggregated data been collected on women’s and men’s

participation?

• Are women involved in decision making on the project? (what

project management mechanisms are in place to facilitate this)

• Have women and men been consulted throughout the activity on

their needs and concerns?

• Are project organisations equally accessible to women and men?

• If men and women are not participating equally, are the reasons

for this clear, articulated and acceptable?

• Are both men and women benefiting from project activities?

• Has sex disaggregated data been collected on the distribution of

benefits and on who has received project resources and services?

• Has consideration been given to whether benefits will be

sustainable, and what factors will enhance sustainability?

• If men and women are not benefiting equally, are the reasons for

this clear, articulated and acceptable?

 

Have constraints arisen during project

implementation to restrict women’s and

men’s participation and the equal

distribution of benefits?

 

• Are there labour/time factors constraining women’s or men’s

participation and the distribution of benefits?

• Is participation and the distribution of benefits constrained by

access to and control over productive resources?

• Is participation and decision making by women and men being

limited by social, political, economic and cultural factors?

(eg. participation in farmer, credit or other project groups)

 

Does the counterpart agency have the

capacity to implement gender-sensitive

projects?

 

• Is equal participation and benefits constrained by lack of

capacity or commitment in the counterpart agency?

• If so, have any strategies been identified to address this?

• Are these strategies able to be resourced?

 

Is the project adversely affecting

women or men?

 

• Has women’s or men’s workload increased or decreased as a

result of project participation? (consider different

socio-economic groups)

• Has women’s or men’s access to resources been reduced?

(eg. loss of land)

• Have any harmful or discriminatory practices against women been

reinforced?

• Have women’s and men’s skills/knowledge in the project sector

been acknowledged and strengthened, or have they been

overlooked or undermined?

• Has women’s status in the community suffered?

 

How is participation by women affecting

men’s and women’s roles and

relationships?

 

• Is there a redistribution of access and control of resources

between women and men?

• Are men, counterpart agencies and other key groups accepting of

any changes to gender roles or control of resources?

• Are strategies needed to overcome any adverse reactions?

(eg. women’s increased financial independence may negatively

affect men’s and women’s relationships)

 

Are assumptions and information about

the characteristics, needs and interests of

women and men still valid?

 

• Is there on-going consultation with women and men?

• Is there on-going collection of data about the needs and

interests of women and men?

• If original design assumptions and information are not valid,

is there scope for redesigning elements of the project?

• Are new strategies, targets, indicators or project resources needed

to address any constraints and issues that have arisen during

project implementation?

• Are any changes needed in monitoring strategies?

 

• Is contractor management performance adequate?

• Is further gender expertise necessary?

• Do any changes need to be made to the contract or scope of

services for key long-term and short-term advisers?

 

Key documents and tasks

Ensure that gender perspectives are incorporated into:

 

Terms of Reference

Contract

Briefing with team members

Project redesign or review

 

 

Progress reports

Activity Monitoring Briefs

Annual Plans

Technical Advisory Group meetings

Project Coordinating Committee meetings

 

Evaluation

• These questions are to be used as a guide only. It is not expected that every question will be relevant to all

activities.

• The questions are designed to assist AusAID Activity Managers with their management and evaluation

of development activities.

• The questions are also designed to assist contractors to incorporate gender perspectives into activity evaluation.

 

Key Guiding Questions

Has the project succeeded in promoting

equal opportunities and benefits for men

and women?

 

Auxiliary Guiding Questions

• Have women and men been involved and consulted in collecting

data on the gender impact of the project?

• Do data collection systems explicitly differentiate between the

project’s impact on men and women?

• Has sex disaggregated data been collected on women’s and men’s

participation?

• Have both men and women participated in project activities?

• Have both men and women benefited from project activities?

• Have women’s practical needs and strategic interests in the

project sector been met?

• Have the targets set for women been met?

 

Have women and men been

disadvantaged or advantaged by the

project?

 

• How have economic and social changes produced by the project

affected women’s and men’s roles and relationships? (consider

gender division of labour and access and control of resources for

each socio-economic group affected or targeted by the project)

 

Has women’s status improved as a result

of the project? (ie. education levels,

health status, access to productive

resources, employment opportunities,

political and legal status)

 

• What practical gender needs and strategic gender interests have

been met to advance women’s status and decision making power?

• Are men, counterpart agencies and other social groups accepting

of any changes to gender roles or control of resources? (have men

and women been sensitised to gender issues)

• Are strategies needed to overcome any adverse reactions?

• Are positive changes to women’s status being sustained and

supported after project completion?

• Are follow-up activities necessary to promote sustainability?

 

Does the counterpart agency have the

capacity to implement gender-sensitive

projects?

 

• Has this capacity been strengthened during the project?

• What has facilitated or constrained this? (lessons learned)

 

Has contractor management performance

been adequate?

 

• Was adequate gender expertise made available throughout the

project?

• Were gender issues adequately addressed in the contract and scope

of services?

 

Has the project been effective in

integrating gender into the development

activity?

 

• Were there constraints to integrating women into the

development activity, and were these identified during project

design and implementation?

• Were strategies and targets identified to ensure that gender issues

would be effectively incorporated?

• Were these strategies adequately resourced during project

implementation?

• Does the evaluation include recommendations for future activities

on how to strengthen women’s participation in the project and/or

sector? (lessons learned)

• Does the evaluation include recommendations on how to promote

equal distribution of benefits in the project and/or sector? (lessons

learned)

 

Key documents and tasks

Ensure that gender perspectives are incorporated into:

• Terms of Reference

• Contract

• Briefing with team members

 

• Project completion report

• Ex-post evaluation report

• Lessons learned database

 

Sectoral

Gender

Questions

 

Agriculture

Gender Division of Labour

Women’s work in agriculture is crucial to the provision of an adequate food supply for their household. Rural

women are generally concerned with meeting subsistence needs of their families and with the management of scarce

household resources, in addition to their role as income earners (FAO 1990: 2). These tasks must also be shared

with women’s reproductive, household/community service, and community management and political roles. Any

changes to production can have a great impact on women’s workload. For example, new varieties of grain may

increase time needed for food processing. Often, extension programs and labour saving technologies have not been

designed for women’s agricultural tasks (such as weeding or transplanting), and therefore have only reduced the

labour input for men.

In most farming systems, females participate in all phases of agricultural production, although their roles (including

decision making) and control over resources and incomes vary greatly from place to place. Women and girls are an

important source of labour in cash crop production, whether or not they control income, and often these roles have

not been well recognised by development planners. Women also participate in the paid agricultural labour force.

They are often responsible for vegetable and tree crops close to their houses, for foraging in forests, and for the care

of large and small livestock. Research (Cloud 1985: 27-29) indicates five general patterns of gender responsibility

in agriculture, although there is much variation:

• separate crops, where women and men are responsible for the production and disposal of different crops or

livestock, or where women specialise in some production activities and participate with men in others.

• separate fields, where women and men produce the same crops, but in different fields, either for subsistence or

for market.

• separate tasks, where some or all tasks within a cropping cycle (or in livestock production) are assigned by gender.

• shared tasks, where men and women undertake the same tasks on the same crops.

• women-managed farms, where women legally own farms and other productive resources, or where men are

absent for short or long periods.

It is very important to consider the roles of boys and girls, as well as that of younger and older women and men in

agricultural and livestock production cycles. Nor should it be assumed that all women in any project area will

perform the same roles or have the same responsibilities. These will vary greatly according to their social and

economic status, including their access to productive resources.

 

Access and Control of Resources and Benefits

Despite women’s critical role in agriculture (globally they are responsible for at least 50% of food produced), women

generally lack access to effective technologies and resources such as credit, extension, seed supply and labour saving

devices. It is difficult for women to secure land and other forms of collateral to be able to access credit and increase

their productive capacity. Subsistence crop production, in which women are usually involved, still tends to receive

less institutional support than cash crop production. The number of female extension officers can be limited, and as

a result women may be less likely to receive agricultural extension services. The introduction of cash cropping can

present problems for women’s agricultural tasks. It may result in competition for labour and land that would otherwise be devoted to producing food.

 

Factors and Trends

Research indicates that decision making patterns about the use of productive resources varies greatly. Small farm

households are not necessarily consensual or cohesive decision making units (as planners have generally assumed),

but a complex interaction of needs, incentives, and interests of both male and female household members (Feldstein

and Jiggins 1994: xi).

There tends to be little consultation with women on the development of new technology, and therefore it is generally the men’s tasks which benefit from improved technology. Often a greater proportion of female income is

devoted to the family’s basic needs and daily survival. Cultural factors can mean that agricultural work done by

women and girls has little or no recognised economic value, even though it may be crucial for household survival.

In many cases, the active participation of women in the agricultural sector has not been taken into account in the

development of agricultural policies and agrarian reforms (CIDA 1989: 9).

 

Environmental and demographic factors always need to be considered when planning and programming for agricultural development activities. For example, households headed solely by women may have very different needs from

those where women and men are both active producers, and women-headed households are amongst the poorest in

the world. Patterns of temporary, seasonal and permanent migration (amongst males and females of all ages) may

also seriously affect the likelihood of project success.

 

Implementing Australia’s Gender and Development Policy

Key aspects of AusAID’s policy relating to the design and implementation of agriculture projects are:

Goal:

• to promote equal opportunities for women and men as participants and beneficiaries of

development

Objectives: • to improve women’s access to economic resources (including access to capital, natural resources,

credit and savings programs, and technical and professional skills)

• to promote women’s participation and leadership in decision making at all levels

• to incorporate a gender perspective in Australia’s aid activities

 

Identification and Preparation Guiding Questions

• These questions are to be used as a guide only. It is not expected that every question will be relevant to all activities.

• The questions are designed to assist AusAID Activity Managers with their assessment and appraisal of development

activities.

• The questions are also designed to assist contractors to incorporate gender perspectives into activity preparation

and design.

 

Key Areas of Concern

Project Objectives and Target Group

 

Guiding Questions

• Do project objectives explicitly refer to women and men?

• Does the project target women’s agricultural production needs as

well as men’s?

• Do project activities build on women’s and men’s knowledge and

skills?

 

The Gender Division of Labour in

Agriculture

 

• Have the roles and responsibilities of women and men in

agriculture been identified? (different crops/activities, through

each phase of the production cycle, for each socio-economic or

ethnic group targeted or affected by the project)

• Are women active in both the subsistence and cash crop sectors?

• Has consideration been given to how women’s and men’s

agricultural activities fit in with other productive, reproductive,

community service and community management tasks?

• Are project inputs suited to women’s productive activities?

(eg. seed supply, vaccines)

• Do extension strategies take account of women’s time and

mobility constraints?

• Has consideration been given to how women’s and men’s

participation in the project will affect their other responsibilities?

(food and cash crop production, family health and nutrition, and

community activities)

• Has consideration been given to how women’s and men’s other

roles and responsibilities may constrain their participation in

project activities?

• Will the project increase the time spent by women or men on

agriculture-related activities?

• Will new technology introduced for men affect women’s work

schedules or their overall workloads?

• Will new technology be introduced to assist women’s agricultural

roles?

 

Access and Control of Resources For

Agricultural Production

 

• Do women have land tenure, or access to sufficient land area

to participate in the project?

 

• Do women and men have equal access to credit, extension officers

and information on agricultural technology introduced by the

project? (have constraints to participation been identified, and

strategies proposed to address these)

• Will female extension officers and/or female group leaders be

involved in the project?

• Is training and technology suited to women’s productive roles?

• Will women and men have equal opportunities to all types of

training available through the project?

• If not, are the reasons for this clear and acceptable?

• Are trainers aware of women’s and men’s roles in agriculture?

• Will women’s or men’s traditional markets or trading activities be

affected by project activities? (eg. will women face more

competition in their traditional crop markets)

Access and Control of Benefits and

Project Impacts

 

• Will the introduction of new techniques or production activities

displace women from their current positions in the sector?

• Will project activities benefit some women or men and

disadvantage others?

• Will the project strengthen or undermine current productive

activities and access to resources of women or men? (or certain

groups of women and men)

 

Social, Cultural, Religious, Economic,

Political, Environmental and

Demographic Factors and Trends

 

• Are there legal barriers to the participation of women in

agriculture? (such as property rights and credit regulations)

• What socio-cultural factors will inhibit women’s participation and

decision making in the project activities?

• Do extension strategies take account of these socio-cultural

constraints? (eg. are separate extension activities needed

for women)

• Have seasonal migration patterns been taken into account in

project design?

 

Participation and Consultation Strategies

 

• Have constraints to men’s and women’s participation in each

of the above areas been considered?

• Has the project design devised strategies to overcome these

constraints to women’s and men’s participation?

• Will any separate programming be needed for women to ensure

that they have equal opportunities to participate as beneficiaries

and decision makers? (eg. separate groups, activities or

components)

 

Women’s Social Status and Role as

Decision Makers

 

• What practical needs and strategic interests of women

are addressed in the project?

 

• Are both women and men seen as agents of change in the project

design?

• How will the project affect existing gender relations? (eg how will

participation by women in project activities affect men’s and

women’s attitudes)

Counterpart Agency Capacity

 

• Does the Recipient Government/counterpart agency

have a national policy or other statements acknowledging/

promoting the roles of women in agriculture?

• Does the counterpart agency have male and female extension

agents, and do they undertake work of similar status and value?

• Has a sex disaggregated employment profile of the counterpart

agency been undertaken?

• Has an affirmative action plan been developed to train, support

and resource female staff?

• How does the project plan to increase counterpart capacity for

gender-sensitive planning and implementation?

 

Project Monitoring

 

• Are arrangements in place to monitor gender impacts? (the

different impacts of the project on women and men, and

on the relations between them)

• Have targets been set for men’s and women’s participation and

benefits?

• Will all data collected be disaggregated by sex?

• Will there be on-going consultation with women and men directly

or indirectly affected by the project, or with women’s groups?

• Will gender differences in adoption rates for new technology be

monitored?

 

Project Resources

 

• Are project resources adequate to deliver services and opportunities

to women and men?

• Is gender expertise being utilised throughout the project?

 

Economic reporting

Gender Division of Labour

The profile of women and men within an economy tends to be different in terms of the position which they occupy

and the activities which they undertake. For this reason, it should not be assumed that economic growth and development will automatically benefit men and women equally. The same point applies to the rich and poor of a

society. Given that economic reports tend to be prescriptive, consideration must be given to the distribution of

benefits of policy prescriptions. This is impossible without a sound sex disaggregated database, which also differentiates population groups according to other key factors such as regional location where relevant, socio-economic

and ethnic groupings (Platform For Action 1995: paras 47, 150, 155). Any gaps in sex disaggregated or other social

analysis data should be noted. It is important to know which statistics are being collected within countries, and

where gaps exist. This can highlight future research and investigation needs.

Within most societies the majority of women are active as both consumers and producers. Women and girls undertake most unpaid work, through their household and community service roles, as well as through their extensive

involvement in subsistence production and in the informal sector. For many poor women, the distinction made in

economic reporting between paid/

Source
ITEP webstie (archive)

Record updated on : 04 July 2012
Record id : 9775