Based on a comprehensive study on the humanitarian and development impact of anti-vehicle mines (AVMs) in 2014, the GICHD and the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) have collaborated to improve evidence of the humanitarian and developmental impact of AVMs.
Since 2015, this research has focused on monitoring and mapping AVM incidents globally. This project gathers data on new incidents and displays them on an interactive and regularly updated map.
The live map below features latest data for the first half of 2016, a visual comparison between 2015 and 2016 data and a historical map with AVM casualties since 1999. A follow-on annual report to the 2015 Global Report will become available in early 2017. If you would like to request the data for this research or report AVM incidents, please contact info(at)gichd.org.
Preliminary Analysis | January - June 2016
From 1 January to 30 June 2016, 106 incidents related or suspected to be related to anti-vehicle mines (AVMs) in 17 states and territories* were recorded, resulting in 220 casualties (84 killed, 136 injured). While the recorded number of incidents increased compared to the same period the previous year by more than 9%, casualties figures are lower (-38%). More than 60% of incidents involved civilians or humanitarian personnel.
The data also suggest that almost two third of the recorded incidents and casualties occurred in current conflicts such as in Afghanistan, Mali, Syria, Ukraine or Yemen. For some states such as Israel and Lebanon, AVM incidents were again recorded in 2016 for the first time in many years.
Three or fewer incidents were reported in nine countries (Angola, Egypt, India, Israel, Lebanon, Somalia, South Sudan, Tunisia and Yemen). Most incidents have 0-5 causalities. On average, an incident results in 2.1 casualties (3.7 in the same period the previous year). Because of the nature of AVMs, outliers can have significantly higher losses (eg. civilian busses and larger military vehicles). The most severe incident during this period with a (suspected) AVM was recorded in February in Ukraine involving a civilian bus and other vehicles and resulted in 15 casualties.
Of the 220 recorded casualties in the first half of 2016 caused or suspected to be caused by AVMs, 47% were national security personnel such as national military, police or border guards (104 casualties), 45% were civilians (99 casualties). Four percent of casualties were peacekeepers (8 casualties). Humanitarian personnel (2 in total) and other combatants (7) were also among the recorded casualties.
While GICHD-SIPRI sources of information help to provide an indication of the humanitarian impact of AVMs, they remain incomplete. Hence, actual casualty figures (versus recorded casualty figures) are likely to be significantly higher. This caveat applies in particular to current conflicts for which data collection and verification are challenging. Incidents considered to be caused by pressure-plated improvised explosive devices (PP-IEDs) are currently not reflected in the map.
It is likely that some portion of the increase in incidents is due to improved data collection.
* Non-Self-Governing Territories as defined by the United Nations.
The published findings of AVM incident data in 2015 can be accessed here.
Data for the interactive map of AVM incidents come from two primary sources, although they vary between states:
Reporting by states and operators on AVM-related casualties is an important data resource. Yet, it remains insufficient for a number of reasons. In some instances, states with suspected AVM casualties release no information at all. In other cases, state reporting on AVM-related casualties remains incomplete due to an inability to cover or access all areas of the country. Reporting may also be incomplete because of the nature of data collection procedures.
To complement data from states and operators, the research team collects news items on AVM incidents through a multi-keyword media review in Arabic, English, French, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish and Urdu. Casualty news items are included either because the reporter specifically identified the incident as AVM-related or because a set of criteria (such as incidents on roads outside of a city involving a vehicle, but excluding remotely-detonated bombs and causing multiple casualties) is strongly indicative of an AVM-related incident. In the latter case, displayed incidents are referred to as suspected AVM incidents. Due to a potentially lower degree of reliability in general and particularly in terms of location and device type, media reports are disaggregated in the map with a colour distinct from reports from states/operators.
Recorded incidents are located as accurately as possible. In the absence of confirmed coordinates, the research team approximates the location to the greatest possible extent. Where reports do not contain any geographical reference, they are mapped at the capital of the country/territory and disclaimed accordingly.
While these sources of information help to provide a rough indication of the humanitarian impact of AVMs, they remain incomplete. Hence, actual casualty figures (versus recorded casualty figures) are likely to be significantly higher. This caveat applies in particular to current conflicts for which data collection and verification are challenging. Incidents considered to be caused by pressure-plated improvised explosive devices (PP-IEDs) are currently not reflected in the map.
The GICHD-SIPRI wish to thank all partners who replied to the survey and provided data in 2015 and/or 2016, in particular the United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Mine Action Service, APOPO, Danish Demining Group, Fondation Suisse de Déminage, Give Voice to Victims Association, HALO Trust, Handicap International, iMMAP, Korea Campaign to Ban Landmines, Mines Advisory Group, Norwegian People’s Aid, Sustainable Peace and Development Organization Pakistan, To Be Foundation for Rights & Freedoms Yemen, Zamin Pak Persia International Company.
The following mine action programmes also provided valuable responses and data: Albanian Mines and Munitions Coordination Office, Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Centre, Cambodia Mine Action Authority, Centre National de Déminage Tchad, Center for Humanitarian Demining and Expertise Armenia, Centre National d’Action Antimines au Sénégal, Comisión Nacional de Desminado Humanitario de Chile, Comissâo nacional intersectorial de desminagem e assistência humanitária Angola, CONTRAMINAS Perú, Croatian Mine Action Centre, Dirección para la Acción Integral contra Minas Antipersonal, Direction de l’Action Humanitaire contre les Mines et Engins non explosés du Burundi, Executive Secretariat for Mine Clearance and the Development of the North West Coast, Iraqi Kurdistan Mine Action Agency, Israeli National Mine Action Authority, Kosovo Mine Action Center, Lebanon Mine Action Centre, Mine Action Centre of Afghanistan, National Committee for Demining and Rehabilitation Jordan, Serbian Mine Action Centre, South Sudan National Mine Action Authority, Sri Lanka National Mine Action Center, STC Delta Georgia, Sudan National Mine Action Center, Tajikistan Mine Action Programme, Thailand Mine Action Centre, Yemen Executive Mine Action Center, Zimbabwe Mine Action Centre.
The GICHD-SIPRI also express their gratitude to the NGO Ambassadors for Development without Borders, Iran, for its strong support.
Combining GICHD-SIPRI data (2015 and Q1/Q2 2016) and Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor data (1999-2014) yields a total of 7,269 casualties of AVMs were recorded in 62 countries and territories* (including in former Yugoslavia) from 1999-June 2016. These casualties included 3,631 injured; 2,252 killed; and 1,386 instances where the outcome of the incident could not be determined. While these figures provide a rough indication of the impact of AVMs, the actual casualty rates are likely to be significantly higher. As indicated in the heat map, the five countries most affected by AVMs in the seventeen years under review, representing 60% of recorded casualties globally, include:
|Country||Number of |
|% of total |
In recent years, some countries/territories have seen a sharp increase in AVM casualties such as Mali, Ukraine, Syria or Yemen associated with the increased use of AVMs due to armed conflict. In Cambodia in 2010, total casualties from AVMs exceeded those from anti-personnel mines for the first time.
While not included in the GICHD-SIPRI data collection, pressure-plated improvised explosive devices (PP-IEDs), acting de facto as anti-vehicle mines, increasingly affect some other countries. Their massive use in countries such as Afghanistan, Mali, Somalia or Syria leads to a significant level of further casualties not captured by GICHD-SIPRI. In 2015, 1,051 civilian casualties from PP-IEDs were, for example, documented in Afghanistan, compared to 34 confirmed or suspected AVM casualties (UNAMA, Annual Report 2015. Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict, p. 38; GICHD-SIPRI data).
The GICHD-SIPRI wish to thank the Landmine Monitor for sharing their historical data.
* Non-Self-Governing Territories as defined by the United Nations
** Casualties for whom it was not known if the person survived