EOD involves the detection, identification, evaluation, render safe, recovery and disposal of explosive remnants of war (ERW). In practice, ERW found in EOD operations comprise mines, munitions and sub-munitions, artillery shells and mortar bombs, hand and rifle grenades, guided missiles, rockets and aircraft bombs. ERW are encountered in varying circumstances, as unexploded (UXO) and abandoned ordnance, caches of UXO, stockpiles of ordnance or as part of post-explosion clearance activity in ammunition storage areas.

In addition to render safe procedures, available physical destruction techniques range from the relatively simple open burning and open detonation (OBOD) techniques through to highly sophisticated industrial processes. Besides OBOD, available EOD techniques include:

  • closed burning
  • contained detonation
  • manual disassembly
  • mechanical disassembly and breakdown
  • robotic disassembly
  • cryofracture
  • hydro-abrasive cutting
  • water jet washout
  • microwave explosive melt-out

The GICHD provides independent advisory services to governments, national authorities and partner agencies on issues relating to explosive ordnance disposal, including, but not limited to: the International Mine Action Standards (IMAS) on EOD, ammunition safety management (ASM) and detailed technical information for the identification, neutralisation, disposal, safety, storage and processing of explosives and transport of ordnance. Technical advice and support are also provided to ERW discussions under the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) process. There has been a variety of assistance provided to national authorities in the past, mainly in identifying and resolving technical, logistical and operational issues involved in stockpile destruction. The GICHD has also conducted post-explosion assessments.

Cluster Munitions Identification Tool (CMID)

The GICHD’s Cluster Munitions Identification (CMID) Tool is a web-based system that enables quick identification of cluster munitions and allows easy access to information on weapons that are classified as cluster munitions prohibited by the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

Access the CMID Tool at