Gichd

Based on a comprehensive study on the humanitarian and development impact of anti-vehicle mines (AVMs) in 2014, the GICHD and the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) have collaborated to improve evidence of the humanitarian and developmental impact of AVMs.  

Since 2015, this research has focused on monitoring and mapping AVM incidents globally. This project gathers data on new incidents and displays them on an interactive and regularly updated map.  

The recently released 2017 Global Report summarises findings on AVM incidents in 2017 and compares them with data from previous years contained in the 2016 Global Report and the 2015 Global Report. The interactive maps are built on latest technology from Esri.

The Story Map above is the most recent product from this collaboration, using the latest tools from Esri to visualise the deep impact of these weapons on communities around the world. 

If you would like to request the data for this research or report AVM incidents, please contact info(at)gichd.org.

Methodology

Data for the interactive maps of AVM incidents come from two primary sources, although they vary between states:

  • Figures provided by states (typically mine action programmes) and mine action organisations
  • Coverage of incidents by the news media.

Data reported by states and organisations remain insufficient for a number of reasons. In some instances, states with suspected AVM incidents do not release any information at all. In other cases, data remain incomplete due to the inability of the national mine action authority or organisations to access certain areas of the territory.

Therefore, data from states and organisations were complemented by media reviews conducted in Arabic, English, French, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish and Urdu (and Ukraine for 2017). Press articles were included, either because an incident was specially identified as AVM-related, or because an incident corresponded to a set of criteria that strongly indicated an AVM-related incident. These included incidents such as those on roads outside of a city involving a vehicle, but excluding remotely-detonated or suicide bombs, and causing multiple casualties. In cases where the criteria strongly suggests an AVM-related incident, the incident is referred to as a suspected AVM incident. In some instances, mine action authorities and organisations were able to assess the relevance and accuracy of retrieved press articles.

Incidents with an unknown number of casualties were categorised as incidents that resulted in casualties, but without specifying any absolute number. For incidents referring to a minimum number of casualties (“at least [number] casualties”), this minimum number was retained in this research. Furthermore, unless clearly attributed in the source, the vehicle category for incidents involving other combatants was defined as “unknown”.

Recorded incidents are located as accurately as possible. In the absence of confirmed coordinates, the research team approximates the location to the greatest possible extent. Where reports do not contain any geographical reference, they are mapped at the capital of the country/territory and disclaimed accordingly.

This research provides an estimate of recorded AVM incidents and casualties, but actual figures are expected to be higher. This caveat applies in particular to current conflict contexts for which data collection and verification are challenging. Data related to AVMs of an improvised nature, such as pressure-plate improvised explosive devices (PP-IEDs), are currently not reflected in the maps. 

Acknowledgements

The GICHD–SIPRI wish to thank all partners who replied to the survey and provided data in 2015, 2016 and/or 2017, in particular the United Nations Chilren’s Funds, the United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Mine Action Service, Ambassadors for Development without Borders Iran, APOPO, “Dales Voz a Las Víctimas” platform, Danish Demining Group, Deminers Concept Nigeria Limited, Fondation Suisse de Déminage, Handicap International, iMMAP, Landmine Monitor, Mines Advisory Group, Norwegian People’s Aid, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Project Co-ordinator in Ukraine, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Special Monitoring Mission to Ukraine, Peace Sharing Association/Korean Campaign to Ban Landmines, Sustainable Peace and Development Organization Pakistan, Syrian Network for Human Rights, The HALO Trust, To Be Foundation for Rights & Freedoms Yemen, Zamin Pak Persia International Company.

The following mine action programmes also provided valuable responses and data: Albanian Mines and Munitions Coordination Office, Azerbaijan National Agency for Mine Action, Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Center, Cambodian Mine Action and Victim Assistance Authority, Center for Humanitarian Demining and Expertise Armenia, Centre National d’Action Antimines au Sénégal, Centro Peruano de Acción contra las Mines Antipersonal, Comisión Nacional de Desminado Humanitario de Chile, Comissâo Nacional Intersectorial de Desminagem e Assistência Humanitária Angola, Croatian Mine Action Centre, Dirección para la Acción Integral contra Minas Antipersonal Colombia, Direction de l’Action Humanitaire contre les Mines et Engins non explosés du Burundi, Executive Secretariat for Mine Clearance and the Development of the North West Coast Egypt, Haut Commissariat National de Déminage du Tchad, Instituto Nacional de Desminagem Mozambique, Iraqi Kurdistan Mine Action Agency, Israeli National Mine Action Authority, Kosovo Mine Action Centre, Lebanon Mine Action Center, Mine Action Coordination Centre of Afghanistan, Ministère de la Défense du Burkina Faso, Ministère de la Défense du Cameroun, National Mine Action Center Sri Lanka, Palestine Mine Action Centre, Programme national de déminage humanitaire pour le développement de la Mauritanie, Serbian Mine Action Centre, Somalia Explosive Management Authority, South Sudan National Mine Action Authority, STC Delta Georgia, Sudan National Mine Action Center, Tajikistan Mine Action Centre, Thailand Mine Action Centre, The National Committee for Demining and Rehabilitation Jordan, Yemen Executive Mine Action Center, Zambia Mine Action Centre, Zimbabwe Mine Action Centre.

The GICHD–SIPRI wish to thank the Landmine Monitor for sharing their historical data (1999-2014) and the regular exchange of more recent data.