The international community follows the principle that ultimate responsibility for landmines and explosive remnants of war rests with the State under whose jurisdiction the contamination exists. This principle has long been recognised and accepted, including in international law. Affected states and the international community have worked to:

  • promote national ownership
  • use approaches that can be sustained
  • establish competency and capacity
  • adhere to international standards and good practices

Transition approaches differ and results have been mixed; there is limited information available that documents and analyses the different types and phases of transition. There is also limited guidance on how to plan and implement the transition of UN-managed mine action programmes to full national ownership.

In response to the limited guidance on the topic of transition to national ownership, the GICHD commissioned nine country case studies in 2011 to highlight different contexts, processes, challenges, good practices and lessons learnt from the process of transition to national ownership:

Case study Afghanistan 

Case study Albania 

Case study Azerbaijan 

Case study Cambodia 

Case study Ethiopia

Case study Lebanon 

Case study Mozambique

Case study Nepal 

Case study Sudan 

Based on lessons learnt and the good practices highlighted in the case studies, the GICHD, in collaboration with UNMAS, produced a Guide on Transitioning Mine Action Programmes to National Ownership, which was launched at the 16th International Meeting of National Mine Action Programme Directors and UN Advisors in Geneva in April 2013. The guide provides hands-on advice to the mine action community on how to plan and implement transition processes.

The GICHD has also supported several countries in developing and reviewing transition plans and strategies.