In October 2014, the GICHD and the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) published a study on the humanitarian and developmental impact of anti-vehicle mines (AVM). The study has been recognised as a source of evidence on the humanitarian and developmental impact of these weapons and a number of States have asked that follow-up work be carried out. Over the next four years, the GICHD/SIPRI will pursue this research by contributing to improved evidence of the humanitarian and developmental impact of AVM, including by monitoring and mapping of AVM incidents.
The aims for this project are to:
The live map below will be updated with new data from the previous quarter. In-depth analysis will become available at the end of 2015/beginning of 2016. If you would like to request the data for this research or report an AVM incident, please contact info(at)gichd.org.
Preliminary Analysis | January- December 2015
From 1 January to 31 December 2015, 178 incidents related or suspected to be related to anti-vehicle mines (AVM) in 25 states and territories* were recorded, resulting in 598 casualties (278 killed, 320 injured) were recorded. The recorded casualties for 2015 indicate a sharp increase compared to 2014 data when 218 casualties from 16 states/territories were reported. However, this is only a rough indication of the impact of AVMs, the actual casualty figures are likely to be significantly higher.
While parts of the increase in casualty figures are due to more focused and disaggregated data collection rather than an actual increase in casualties, collected data also suggest that ongoing or protracted conflicts, such as in Ukraine (97 casualties in 25 recorded incidents), Mali (76 casualties in 24 recorded incidents) or Yemen (65 casualties in 19 recorded incidents) led to a higher level of incidents and new casualties.
Four or fewer incidents were reported in Angola, Chad, Cyprus, DRC, Egypt, Georgia, India, Iran, Kenya, Libya, Morocco, Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Thailand, Tunisia. Most incidents have 0-5 causalities, but some accidents led to a significantly higher human toll (civilian busses, and larger military vehicles). On average, an incident results in 3.3 casualties. The most severe incident was recorded in April in Mali involving a civilian bus and causing 32 casualties. Only about 1/3 of recorded incidents have gender and age-disaggregated data.
Of the 598 recorded casualties in 2015 caused or suspected to be caused by AVM, almost 60% were civilians (355 casualties), followed by national security personnel such as national military, police or border guards (165 casualties). Five percent of casualties were peacekeepers (27 casualties) while 11 international security personnel casualties such as soldiers engaged in international military operations (outside the mandate of a peacekeeping mission) died or were injured by AVM (2%). The remaining casualties involved humanitarian personnel (6 in total) and other combatants (8). For 26 casualties (4%), it was impossible to disaggregate the category of the victims.
* Non-Self-Governing Territories as defined by the United Nations.
Data for the interactive map of AVM casualties comes from two primary sources, although they vary between states:
Reporting by states and operators on AVM-related casualties is an important data resource. Yet, it remains insufficient for a number of reasons. In some instances, states with suspected AVM casualties release no information at all. In other cases, state reporting on AVM-related casualties remains incomplete due to an inability to cover or access all areas of the country. Reporting may also be incomplete because of the nature of data collection procedures.
To complement data from states and operators, the research team collected news items on AVM incidents through a multi-keyword media review in Arabic, English, French, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish and Urdu. Casualty news items were included either because the reporter specifically identified the accident as AVM-related or because a set of criteria (such as incidents on roads outside of a city involving a vehicle, but excluding remotely-detonated bombs and causing multiple casualties) was strongly indicative of an AVM-related incident. In the latter case, displayed incidents are referred to as suspected AVM incidents. Due to a potentially lower degree of reliability in general and particularly in terms of location and device type, media reports are disaggregated in the map with a colour distinct from reports from states/operators.
Recorded incidents were located as accurately as possible. In the absence of confirmed coordinates, the research team approximated the location to the greatest possible extent. Where reports did not contain any geographical reference, they were mapped at the capital of the country/territory and disclaimed accordingly.
While these sources of information help to provide a rough indication of the humanitarian impact of AVMs, they remain incomplete. Hence, actual casualty figures (versus recorded casualty figures) are likely to be significantly higher. This caveat applies in particular to current conflicts for which data collection and verification are challenging. Incidents considered to be caused by pressure-plated improvised explosive devices (PP-IEDs) are currently not reflected in the map.
The GICHD/SIPRI wish to thank all partners who replied to the survey and provided data, in particular the United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Mine Action Service, APOPO, Danish Demining Group, Fondation Suisse de Déminage, HALO Trust, Handicap International, Mines Advisory Group, Norwegian People’s Aid, Sustainable Peace and Development Organization Pakistan, To Be Foundation for Rights & Freedoms Yemen, Zamin Pak Persia International Company.
The following mine action programmes also provided valuable responses and data: Albanian Mines and Munitions Coordination Office, Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Centre, Cambodia Mine Action Authority, Centre National de Déminage Tchad, Center for Humanitarian Demining and Expertise Armenia, Centre National d’Action Antimines au Sénégal, Comisión Nacional de Desminado Humanitario de Chile, Comissâo nacional intersectorial de desminagem e assistência humanitária Angola, CONTRAMINAS Perú, Croatian Mine Action Centre, Dirección para la Acción Integral contra Minas Antipersonal, Direction de l’Action Humanitaire contre les Mines et Engins non explosés du Burundi, Executive Secretariat for Mine Clearance and the Development of the North West Coast, Iraqi Kurdistan Mine Action Agency, Kosovo Mine Action Center, Lebanon Mine Action Centre, Mine Action Centre of Afghanistan, National Committee for Demining and Rehabilitation Jordan, Serbian Mine Action Centre, South Sudan National Mine Action Authority, Sri Lanka National Mine Action Center, STC Delta Georgia, Sudan National Mine Action Center, Tajikistan Mine Action Programme, Thailand Mine Action Centre, Yemen Executive Mine Action Center, Zimbabwe Mine Action Centre.
The GICHD and SIPRI analysed disaggregated data between 1999-2013 provided by the Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor. In that four-year period, 6,233 casualties of anti-vehicle mines (AVM) were recorded in 57 countries and territories (and in former Yugoslavia), resulting in 3,047 injured; 1,800 killed; and 1,386 instances where the outcome of the accident could not be determined. During the same period, 20,918 casualties from anti-personnel mines (APM) were recorded. For the other 5,321 casualties, the type of mine could not be established. While these figures provide a rough indication of the impact of AVMs and APMs, the actual casualty rates are likely to be significantly higher. As indicated in the heat map, the five countries most affected by AVMs in the fourteen years under review, representing 65% of recorded casualties globally, include:
|Country||Number of |
|% of total |
In recent years, some countries/territories have seen an increase in AVM casualties such as Mali or Pakistan. In Cambodia in 2010, total casualties from AVMs exceeded those from APMs for the first time. In others, data indicate a reverse trend, for instance in Afghanistan. It has to be noted that, as a result of their design, pressure-plated improvised explosive devices (PP-IEDs) may de facto act as anti-vehicle mines. Their massive use in countries such as Afghanistan, Mali or Somalia leads to a significant level of further casualties. In 2013, 558 civilian casualties from PP-IEDs were, for example, documented in Afghanistan, compared to five AVM casualties (UNAMA, Annual Report 2014. Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict, p. 6).
The regional AVM casualty maps illustrate the ratio between the outcomes of incidents per country/territory. They also demonstrate that in a number of instances, accident data was not disaggregated for such analysis in the past. It is expected that, where incident reporting permits, future collection of data will allow for a more detailed account of casualties.
The GICHD/SIPRI wish to thank the Landmine Monitor for sharing their historical data.